The History and Archaeology Department is rooted in the "Alexandru and Aretia Aman Foundation", established in 1908. Later on, in 1915, upon the initiative of Professor Ştefan Ciuceanu, it became the Oltenia Regional Museum of Antiquities and Ethnography, located in the building of the Dolj Prefecture, then in Bania House and, in 1948, in the building in 44 Madona Dudu Street. The present building of the History and Archaeology Department was erected between 1905 and 1907, to serve as a school building, after the plans of the architect Fr. Billek, preserving the Romanian architectural style. Over the decades, the department heritage grew and the museum developed its collectio...ns: the Neolithic of Cârcea, the clay figurines of Gârla Mare, the bronze ornaments of Basarabi, the Dacian treasure of Craiova, lamps, hoards, religious art items, fresco fragments from the "St. John Sebastian" Church, side and fire arms, furniture, clocks, photographs, post cards, flags, a lapidarium, periodicals. All those make up the over 20 collections, rising to over 100,000 cultural assets, that contributes to the reconstruction of the main events of the evolution of human society from the ancient times to this day. The museum owns goods listed in the National Cultural Heritage Treasure.